The ultraluminous X-ray source M81 X-6: a weakly magnetised neutron star with a precessing accretion disc?Abstract
We investigate the nature of the ULX M81 X-6, which has been suggested to harbour a neutron star (NS), by studying its long-term X-ray spectral and temporal evolution, using the rich set of available archival data from XMM-Newton, Chandra, NuSTAR, and Swift/XRT. We tracked the evolution of the source on the hardness-intensity diagram and find that the source oscillates between two main states: one characterised by a hard and luminous spectrum and the other at low hardness and luminosity. The properties of the soft component remain constant between the two states, suggesting that changes in the mass-transfer rate are not driving the spectral transitions. Instead, the bi-modal behaviour of the source and the known super-orbital period would point to the precession of the accretion disc. Here, we tested two theoretical models: (1) Lense-Thirring precession, which can explain the super-orbital period if the NS has a magnetic field B≲1010 G, supporting the idea of M81 X-6 as a weakly magnetised NS, and (2) precession due to the torque of the NS magnetic field, which leads to B≳1011 G. However, the latter scenario, assuming M81 X-6 shares similar properties with other NS-ULXs, is disfavoured because it would require magnetic field strengths (B>1015 G) much higher than those known for other pulsating ULXs. We further show that the contribution from the hard component attributed to the putative accretion column sits just below the typical values found in pulsating ULXs, which, together with the low value of the pulsed fraction (≤10%) found for one XMM-Newton/pn observation, could explain the source’s lack of pulsations. The spectral properties and variability of M81 X-6 can be accounted for if the accretor is a NS with a low magnetic field. Under the hypothesis of Lense-Thirring precession, we predict a spin period of the NS of a few seconds.
Looking through the photoionisation wake: Vela X−1 at φorb ≈ 0.75 with Chandra/HETGAbstract
Context. The supergiant X-ray binary Vela X−1 represents one of the best astrophysical sources to investigate the wind environment of an O/B star irradiated by an accreting neutron star. Previous studies and hydrodynamic simulations of the system have revealed a clumpy environment and the presence of two wakes: an accretion wake surrounding the compact object and a photoionisation wake trailing it along the orbit.
Aims. Our goal is to conduct, for the first time, high-resolution spectroscopy on Chandra/HETGS data at the orbital phase φorb ≈ 0.75, when the line of sight is crossing the photoionisation wake. We aim to conduct plasma diagnostics, inferring the structure and the geometry of the wind.
Methods. We performed a blind search employing a Bayesian block algorithm to find discrete spectral features and identify them thanks to the most recent laboratory results or through atomic databases. Plasma properties were inferred both with empirical techniques and with photoionisation models within CLOUDY and SPEX.
Results. We detect and identify five narrow radiative recombination continua (Mg XI-XII, Ne IX-X, O VIII) and several emission lines from Fe, S, Si, Mg, Ne, Al, and Na, including four He-like triplets (S XV, Si XIII, Mg XI, and Ne IX). Photoionisation models reproduce the overall spectrum well, except for the near-neutral fluorescence lines of Fe, S, and Si.
Conclusions. We conclude that the plasma is mainly photoionised, but more than one component is most likely present, which is consistent with a multi-phase plasma scenario, where denser and colder clumps of matter are embedded in the hot, photoionised wind of the companion star. Simulations with the future X-ray satellites Athena and XRISM show that a few hundred seconds of exposure is sufficient to disentangle the lines of the Fe Kα doublet and the He-like Fe XXV, improving, in general, the determination of the plasma parameters.
Scattering efficiencies measurements of soft protons at grazing incidence from an Athena Silicon Pore Optics sampleAbstract
Soft protons are a potential threat for X-ray missions using grazing incidence optics, as once focused onto the detectors they can contribute to increase the background and possibly induce radiation damage as well. The assessment of these undesired effects is especially relevant for the future ESA X-ray mission Athena, due to its large collecting area. To prevent degradation of the instrumental performance, which ultimately could compromise some of the scientific goals of the mission, the adoption of ad-hoc magnetic diverters is envisaged. Dedicated laboratory measurements are fundamental to understand the mechanisms of proton forward scattering, validate the application of the existing physical models to the Athena case and support the design of the diverters. In this paper we report on scattering efficiency measurements of soft protons impinging at grazing incidence onto a Silicon Pore Optics sample, conducted in the framework of the EXACRAD project. Measurements were taken at two different energies, ∼470 keV and ∼170 keV, and at four different scattering angles between 0.6° and 1.2°. The results are generally consistent with previous measurements conducted on eROSITA mirror samples, and as expected the peak of the scattering efficiency is found around the angle of specular reflection.